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Meine WETTSCHEINE zum ubucontest.euliga Spieltag This situation was undone on 3 Octoberthe day of German unification, when western Staaken was reincorporated into united Berlin. On 20 NovemberEast Germany reopened the western entrance, which required two more vessel border checkpoints — Dreilinden and Kleinmachnow — because the waterway crossed the border between East Germany and West Berlin four times. When the cold war began, the joint administration of Zugänge werder bremen and Berlin broke down. The Western Allies remained the star casino mulvane kansas political authorities in West Berlin. However, in many ways, West Berlin functioned as the de facto 11th state of West Germany. At first, this arrangement was intended to be of a temporary getradet nature, with all parties declaring that Germany and Berlin would soon be reunited. History of Germany and History of Europe. Wasser- und Schifffahrtsamt Berlinshould be continued and casino kempten öffnungszeiten in all four sectors. Trainer brasilien Berlin is in light blue, dark blue and purple. Mit diesen Tipps kein Problem!
According to the western allies, the occupation of most of Germany ended in when the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic were set up.
But the occupation of Berlin could only be ended by a quadripartite four power agreement, so Berlin remained an occupied territory under the formal control of all the allies.
This move was not recognised by the western allies who continued to view all of Berlin as a jointly occupied territory belonging to neither of the two states.
However, in many ways, West Berlin functioned as the de facto 11th state of West Germany. But the western allies remained the ultimate political authorities there.
While West Berlin was separate from East Berlin after , people could easily move between the two parts until In many ways Berlin worked as a single city.
The U-Bahn and S-Bahn public transit networks, rebuilt after the war, spanned all occupation sectors. Many people lived in one half of the city and had family members, friends, and jobs in the other.
East Germany closed the borders between East and West Germany in , but did not seal off West Berlin; because there was freedom of movement between West Berlin and West Germany, Easterners could use the city as a crossing point to the West.
It was still possible to travel from West Berlin to West Germany by air and by specific rail and autobahn transit routes set aside for that purpose, but inhabitants of the two Berlins were now physically and legally separated from each other.
The Four Power Agreement on Berlin September and the Transit Agreement May , helped to ease the tensions over West Berlin and made it a little easier for West Berliners to travel to East Germany and for Germans travelling along the road routes into the city instead of flying.
On 9 November the wall was opened, and the two cities were once again physically - but not legally - united. German reunification soon ended the western occupation of West Berlin.
Allied occupation and the formation of the two Germanys, — Berlin, the former capital, which was surrounded by the Soviet zone, was placed under joint four-power authority but was partitioned into four sectors for administrative purposes.
An Allied Control Council was to exercise overall joint authority over the country. He showed great moral courage when in the Soviet Union demanded that West Berlin be given the title of a demilitarized free city and especially when the Berlin Wall was built in Help us improve this article!
Contact our editors with your feedback. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered.
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Internet URLs are the best. Another amendment was added in at the border between the British sector of Berlin ceding West-Staaken and the Soviet zone ceding the Seeburg Salient so that the Wehrmacht airfield at Berlin-Gatow became part of the British sector and the airfield at Berlin-Staaken became part of the Soviet sector.
The resulting borderline was further complicated with a lot of geographical oddities, including a number of exclaves and enclaves that Greater Berlin had inside some neighbouring municipalities since , all of which happened to become part of the British or American sectors after , so that parts of West Berlin came to be surrounded by East Germany.
However, the de facto administration remained with the Borough of Spandau in the British sector. On 1 February , East German Volkspolizei surprised the people of western Staaken by occupying the area and ended its administration by the Spandau Borough; instead, western Staaken became an exclave of the Soviet occupied borough Berlin-Mitte in the city centre.
This situation was undone on 3 October , the day of German unification, when western Staaken was reincorporated into united Berlin.
In order to reduce eastern tapping of telecommunications between West Berlin and West Germany, microwave radio relay connections were built, which transmitted telephone calls between antenna towers in West Germany and West Berlin by radio.
This tower was demolished on 8 February West Berliners could travel to West Germany and all Western and non-aligned states at all times, except during the Berlin Blockade by the Soviet Union 24 June to 12 May when there were restrictions on passenger flight capacity imposed by the airlift.
Travelling to and from West Berlin by road or train always required passing through East German border checks, since West Berlin was an enclave surrounded by East Germany and East Berlin.
On 2 October , six years after the Wall was constructed, tram tracks in West Berlin were lifted because the authorities wanted to promote car usage, meaning that the tram system remaining today runs almost entirely within the former East Berlin.
For travel from West Berlin through East Germany by car or rail, a valid passport was required for citizens of West Germany and other western nationals to be produced at East German border checks; West Berliners could get admission only through their identity cards see above.
Transitstrecke , East German border guards issued a transit visa for a fee of 5 Western Deutsche Mark. For journeys between West Berlin and Poland or Czechoslovakia through East Germany, each traveller was also required to present a valid visa for the destination country.
The transit routes for road travel connecting West Berlin to other destinations usually consisted of autobahns and other highways, marked by Transit signs.
Transitreisende were prohibited to leave the transit routes, and occasional traffic checkpoints would check for violators. The latter three routes used autobahns built during the Nazi era.
The transit routes were also used for East German domestic traffic. This meant that transit passengers could potentially meet with East Germans and East Berliners at restaurants at motorway rest stops.
Since such meetings were deemed illegal by the East German government, border guards would calculate the travel duration from the time of entry and exit of the transit route.
Excessive time spent for transit travel could arouse their suspicion and prompt questioning or additional checking by the border guards. Western coaches could stop only at dedicated service areas, since the East German government was concerned that East Germans might potentially use coaches to escape into the West.
On 1 September East Germany, because of a shortage in foreign currencies , started to levy road tolls on cars using the transit routes. At first the toll amounted to 10 Ostmark per passenger car and 10 to 50 for trucks, depending on size.
Ostmarks had to be exchanged at Deutsche Mark a rate of 1: On 30 March , East Germany raised the toll for passenger cars to 30 Deutsche Marks, but after West German protests, in June of the same year it changed it back to the previous rate.
Transitpauschale of 50 million Deutsche Marks to the Eastern government, so that transit passengers no longer had to pay tolls individually.
Four transit train connections—earlier also called interzonal train German: These transit trains did not service domestic passengers of East Germany and made stops in East Germany almost exclusively for East German border guards upon entering and leaving the country.
Until the construction of the Berlin Wall, interzonal trains would also stop once on their way within East Germany for travellers having a visa for entering or leaving East Germany.
Train travel from West Berlin to Czechoslovakia, Denmark by ferry , Poland and Sweden by ferry required a visa to enter East Berlin or East Germany to allow transfer to an international train—which also carried domestic passengers—bound for an international destination.
In July and August , the three Western Allies and the Soviet Union decided that the railways, previously serviced by the Deutsche Reichsbahn German Reich Railways , should continue to be operated by one railway administration to service all four sectors.
So West Berlin had — with the exception of a few small private railway lines — no separate railway administration. After the founding of East Germany on 7 October it gained responsibility for the Reichsbahn in its territory.
East Germany continued to run its railways under the official name Deutsche Reichsbahn , which thus maintained responsibility for almost all railway transport in all four sectors of Berlin.
After the Berlin Blockade transit trains German: Until , the Reichsbahn also permitted stops at other stations on the way through the Western sectors.
After easing of tensions between East and West Germany, starting on 30 May transit trains going westwards, southwestwards, or southwards stopped once again at Wannsee.
For transit trains going northwestwards, a shorter line was reopened on 26 September with an additional stop at the then Berlin-Spandau railway station , entering East Germany at Staaken.
They could spend this money in East Germany and take their purchases to West Berlin, which other Westerners could not do to the same extent.
The Reichsbahn ran its own hospital for them in West Berlin, the building of which is now used as the headquarters of Bombardier Transportation.
For certain patients, the Reichsbahn would facilitate treatment in a hospital in East Berlin. In medical emergencies, the employees could use West Berlin doctors and hospitals, which would then be paid for by the Reichsbahn.
Two waterways via the rivers and canals Havel and Mittellandkanal were open for inland navigation , but only freight vessels were allowed to cross from West Berlin into East German waters.
Western freight vessels could stop only at dedicated service areas, because the East German government wanted to prevent any East Germans from boarding them.
Through these waterways, West Berlin was linked to the western European inland navigation network, connecting to seaports like Hamburg and Rotterdam , as well as to industrial areas such as the Ruhr Area , Mannheim , Basel , Belgium, and eastern France.
In July and August , the Western Allies and the Soviet Union decided that the operation and maintenance of the waterways and locks, which were previously run by the national German directorate for inland navigation German: Wasser- und Schifffahrtsamt Berlin , should be continued and reconstructed in all four sectors.
Westhafen Canal and locks, West Berlin had no separate inland navigation authority, but the East Berlin-based authority operated most waterways and locks, their lockmasters were employed by the East.
The western entrance to the Teltowkanal , connecting several industrial areas of West Berlin for heavy freight transport, was blocked by East Germany in Potsdam- Klein Glienicke.
On 20 November , East Germany reopened the western entrance, which required two more vessel border checkpoints — Dreilinden and Kleinmachnow — because the waterway crossed the border between East Germany and West Berlin four times.
Air traffic was the only connection between West Berlin and the Western world that was not directly under East German control. Tickets were originally sold for pounds sterling only.
According to permanent agreements, three air corridors to West Germany were provided, which were open only for British, French, or U.
The airspace controlled by the Berlin Air Safety Center comprised a radius of 20 miles The West German airline Lufthansa and most other international airlines were not permitted to fly to West Berlin.
From then on West Berliners required a permit to enter East Germany. East German border checkpoints were established in East German suburbs of West Berlin, and most streets were gradually closed for interzonal travel into East Germany.
This caused hardship for many West Berlin residents, especially those who had friends and family in East Germany. However, East Germans could still enter West Berlin.
A number of cemeteries located in East Germany were also affected by the closure. Many church congregations in Berlin owned cemeteries outside the city, so many West Berlin congregations had cemeteries that were located in East Germany.
So many West Berliners wishing to visit the grave of a relative or friend on cemeteries located in East Germany were now unable to do so.
Train routes servicing these suburbs formerly went through West Berlin stations, but ceased to make stops in the western stations or terminated service before entering West Berlin.
Travellers from East Germany were checked before entering any part of Berlin, to identify individuals intending to escape into West Berlin or smuggling rationed or rare goods into West Berlin.
In , the Reichsbahn began construction work on the Berlin outer-circle railway line. This circular line connected all train routes heading for West Berlin and accommodated all domestic GDR traffic, thus directing railway traffic into East Berlin while by-passing West Berlin.
Commuters in the East German suburbs around West Berlin now boarded Sputnik express trains, which took them into East Berlin without crossing any western sectors.
With the completion of the outer-circle railway, there was no further need for express S-Bahn trains crossing the West Berlin border and thus their service ended on 4 May , while stopping S-Bahn trains continued service.
With the construction of the Berlin Wall on 13 August , any remaining railway traffic between West Berlin and its East German suburbs ended.
Rail traffic between East and West Berlin was sharply reduced and restricted to a small number of checkpoints under GDR control.
However, international visitors could obtain visas for East Berlin upon crossing one of the checkpoints at the Wall. This route was open only to persons bearing all the necessary East German permits and visas.
While East and West Berlin became formally separate jurisdictions in September , and while there were travel restrictions in all other directions for more than a decade, freedom of movement existed between the western sectors and the eastern sector of the city.
However, time and again Soviet and later East German authorities imposed temporary restrictions for certain persons, certain routes, and certain means of transport.
Gradually the eastern authorities disconnected and separated the two parts of the city. While the Soviets blocked all transport to West Berlin Berlin Blockade between 24 June to 12 May , they increased food supplies in East Berlin in order to gain the compliance of West Berliners who at that time still had free access to East Berlin.
This was seen as support by the communists and as treason by most Westerners. By July a mere 19, West Berliners out of a total of almost 2 million covered their food requirements in East Berlin.
The new currency was also introduced in West Berlin on 24 June and this, at least officially, was the justification for the Soviet Blockade due to which rationing in West Berlin had to continue.
However, in the course of the Berlin Air Lift some supplies were increased beyond the pre-Blockade level and therefore rationing of certain goods in West Berlin was stopped.
While West Berliners were officially welcome to buy food in East Berlin, the Soviets tried to prevent them from buying other essential supplies, particularly coal and other fuel.
For this reason, on 9 November , they opened checkpoints on 70 streets entering West Berlin and closed the others for horse carriages, lorries and cars, later 16 March the Soviets erected roadblocks on the closed streets.
They also opened so-called "Free Shops" in the Eastern Sector, offering supplies without ration stamps, but denominated at extremely high prices in Eastern Deutsche Marks.
Ordinary East and West Berliners could only afford to buy there if they had income in Western Deutsche Mark and bartered the needed Eastern Deutsche Mark on the spontaneous currency markets, which developed in the British sector at the Zoo station.
After the Blockade, when holders of Western Deutsche Marks could buy as much they could afford, up to five and six east marks were offered for one west mark.
In the East, however, the Soviets had arbitrarily decreed a rate of 1 for 1 and exchanging at other rates was criminalised.
On 12 May the Blockade ended and all roadblocks and checkpoints between East and West Berlin were removed.
The Berlin Airlift, however, continued until 30 September in order to build up supplies in West Berlin the so-called Senate Reserve , in readiness for another possible blockade, thus ensuring that an airlift could then be restarted with ease.
On 2 May power stations in East Berlin started again to supply West Berlin with sufficient electricity. Before then, electricity supplies had to be reduced to just a few hours a day after the normal supplies had been interrupted at the start of the Blockade.
However, the Western Allies and the West Berlin City Council decided to be self-sufficient in terms of electricity generation capacity, to be independent of Eastern supplies and not to be held to ransom by the eastern authorities.
On 1 December the new powerhouse West German: However, for a time Eastern electricity continued to be supplied albeit intermittently. Supply was interrupted from 1 July until the end of and then started again until 4 March , when the East finally switched it off.
Free entry to East Berlin remained possible until and the building of the Wall. Many people lived in one half of the city and had family, friends, and jobs in the other.
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