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Through its acquisitions of many different companies and film and television libraries, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer has greatly enhanced its film and television holdings.

As of , MGM owned the rights to 5, films. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see MGM disambiguation. The neutrality of this article is disputed.

Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. December Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Marcus Loew Louis B. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. This section has multiple issues.

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May Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer films. Greater Los Angeles portal Companies portal Film portal.

Retrieved December 20, Retrieved September 20, Retrieved September 14, The Life and Legend of Louis B. The American film industry Revised ed.

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Archived from the original PDF on February 5, Los Angeles Business Journal. Retrieved February 5, Archived from the original on October 6, Retrieved October 20, Archived from the original on June 10, The Internship Bible 10th ed.

Theory and Practical Approaches. Modernity and Mass Culture. The Book of Answers: The house that George Built: The Grove Book of Hollywood 1st ed.

The Arthur Freed Unit 1st ed. The Wizardry of Oz: Sex, Immorality, and Insurrection in American Cinema, — American Cinema of the s: New Brunswick, New Jersey: Dancing in the Dark with Howard Dietz.

All the Stars in Heaven: Retrieved April 2, Who Owns What Today". Retrieved March 20, Retrieved June 10, Retrieved May 31, Archived from the original on April 18, The Road Out of Development Hell".

Founders Marcus Loew Louis B. Mayer President of Film Jonathan Glickman. Cinema of the United States. In the 19th century, when Sardinia became a part of Italy , the region came under French influence again but France allowed it to remain independent.

Like France, Monaco was overrun by the Axis powers during the Second World War and for a short time was administered by Italy, then the Third Reich , before finally being liberated.

Although the occupation lasted for just a short time, it meant the deportation of the Jewish population and execution of several resistance members from Monaco.

Since then Monaco has been independent. It has taken some steps towards integration with the European Union. However, the Genoese became engaged in other conflicts, and in the late s Genoa became involved in a conflict with the Crown of Aragon over Corsica.

In , the Grimaldi family purchased Monaco from the Crown of Aragon and became the official and undisputed rulers of "the Rock of Monaco".

The principality continued its existence as a protectorate of France until the French Revolution. In , Revolutionary forces captured Monaco and it remained under direct French control until , when the Grimaldi family returned to the throne.

Between and Monaco was occupied by the French in this period much of Europe had been overrun by the French under command of Napoleon. Before this time there was unrest in Menton and Roquebrune , where the townspeople had become weary of heavy taxation by the Grimaldi family.

They declared their independence, hoping for annexation by Sardinia. In , the principality stopped collecting income tax from its residents—an indulgence the Grimaldi family could afford to entertain thanks solely to the extraordinary success of the casino.

Until the Monegasque Revolution of forced the adoption of the constitution , the princes of Monaco were absolute rulers. The treaty, endorsed in by the Treaty of Versailles , established that Monegasque international policy would be aligned with French political, military, and economic interests, and resolved the Monaco Succession Crisis.

In , the Italian Army invaded and occupied Monaco, forming a fascist administration. In , a crisis developed when Charles de Gaulle blockaded Monaco, angered by its status as a tax haven for wealthy French.

The film Grace of Monaco is loosely based on this crisis. In , the Principality of Monaco became a member of the United Nations , with full voting rights.

In , a new treaty between France and Monaco specified that, should there be no heirs to carry on the Grimaldi dynasty, the principality would still remain an independent nation rather than revert to France.

On 31 March , Rainier III, who was too ill to exercise his duties, relinquished them to his only son and heir, Albert.

Following a period of official mourning, Prince Albert II formally assumed the princely crown on 12 July , [44] in a celebration that began with a solemn Mass at Saint Nicholas Cathedral , where his father had been buried three months earlier.

Monaco has been governed under a constitutional monarchy since , with the Sovereign Prince of Monaco as head of state. Under the constitution, the prince shares his veto power with the unicameral National Council.

Monaco is the second-smallest country by area in the world ; only Vatican City is smaller. There is no geographical distinction between the State and City of Monaco, although responsibilities of the government state-level and of the municipality city-level are different.

The municipalities were merged into one in , after accusations that the government was acting according to the motto "divide and conquer," and they were accorded the status of Wards or Quartiers thereafter.

An additional ward was planned by new land reclamation to be settled beginning in [64] but Prince Albert II announced in his New Year Speech that he had ended plans due to the current economic climate.

Currently Monaco is subdivided into ten wards , with their official numbers; either Fontvieille II or Le Portier would become the effective eleventh ward, if built: The wider defence of the nation is provided by France.

Monaco has no navy or air force, but on both a per-capita and per-area basis, Monaco has one of the largest police forces police officers for about 36, people and police presences in the world.

There is also a small military force. The company numbers exactly officers and men; while the NCOs and soldiers are local, the officers have generally served in the French Army.

Monaco is a sovereign city state , with five quartiers and ten wards, [82] located on the French Riviera in Western Europe.

Saint-Jean is the longest flowing body of water, around 0. Current land reclamation projects include extending the district of Fontvieille.

Decorative elements including turrets, balconies, pinnacles, multi-coloured ceramics and caryatids and borrowed and blended to create a picturesque fantasy of pleasure and luxury, and an alluring expression of how Monaco sought, and still seeks, to portray itself.

Following major development in the s, Prince Rainier III banned high-rise development in the principality. Csa , which is influenced by oceanic climate and humid subtropical climate.

As a result, it has warm, dry summers and mild, rainy winters. On the other hand, the nights are very mild, due to the fairly high temperature of the sea in summer.

In the winter, frosts and snowfalls are extremely rare and generally occur once or twice every ten years. Each year many foreigners are attracted to its casino and pleasant climate.

The state retains monopolies in numerous sectors, including tobacco and the postal service. It is still, however, a monopoly.

Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas. Monaco is not a member of the European Union.

However, it is very closely linked via a customs union with France and, as such, its currency is the same as that of France, the euro.

Before , Monaco minted its own coins, the Monegasque franc. Monaco has acquired the right to mint euro coins with Monegasque designs on its national side.

The plan for casino gambling was drafted during the reign of Florestan I in The House of Grimaldi was in dire need of money.

The towns of Menton and Roquebrune , which had been the main sources of income for the Grimaldi family for centuries, were now accustomed to a much improved standard of living and lenient taxation thanks to Sardinian intervention and clamored for financial and political concession, even for separation.

The Blancs opened Le Grand Casino de Monte Carlo in and the casino benefited from the tourist traffic the newly built French railway system created.

The most recent addition in Monte Carlo is the Monte Carlo Bay Casino , which sits on 4 hectares of the Mediterranean Sea and, among other things, offers slot machines, all equipped with " ticket-in, ticket-out " TITO ; it is the first Mediterranean casino to use this technology.

Monaco has high social-insurance taxes, payable by both employers and employees. Unlike classic tax havens, it does not offer offshore financial services.

In it went a step farther and secured a place on its "white list", after signing twelve information exchange treaties with other jurisdictions.

However, difficulties have been encountered with Monaco by countries in international investigations on serious crimes that appear to be linked also with tax matters.

The Council of Europe also decided to issue reports naming tax havens. Twenty-two territories, including Monaco, were thus evaluated between and on a first round.

Monaco was the only territory that refused to perform the second round, between and , whereas the 21 other territories had planned implementing the third and final round, planned between and This is why the first euro coins from Monaco have the year on them, instead of , like the other countries of the Eurozone that decided to put the year of first circulation on their coins.

Thus, French and Italian supplants Monegasque, the vernacular language of the Monegasques, which is not recognized as an official language; English is used by American , British , Anglo- Canadian , and Irish residents.

The official religion is the Catholic Church, with freedom of other religions guaranteed by the constitution. The diocese, which has existed since the midth century, was raised to a non-metropolitan archbishopric in as the Archdiocese of Monaco and remains exempt i.

The patron saint is Saint Devota. Christians comprise a total of There are various Evangelical Protestant communities that gather periodically.

The report states that there are two Protestant churches, including the local Anglican church and a Reformed church. There is one Anglican church St.

In this had a formal membership of Anglicans resident in the principality, but was also serving a considerably larger number of Anglicans temporarily in the country, mostly as tourists.

The church site also accommodates an English-language library of over 3, books. Two-thirds of the Jewish population is Sephardic , mainly from North Africa , while the other third is Ashkenazi.

The Muslim population of Monaco consists of about people, most of whom are exclusively residents, not citizens. Since , the Monaco Grand Prix has been held annually in the streets of Monaco.

The erection of the Circuit de Monaco takes six weeks to complete and the removal after the race takes another three weeks. Despite the challenging nature of the course it has only had one fatality, Lorenzo Bandini , who crashed, burned and died three days later from his injuries in Since part of the Monte Carlo Rally has been held in the principality, originally held at the behest of Prince Albert I.

It has long been considered to be one of the toughest and most prestigious events in rallying and from to was the opening round of the World Rally Championship WRC.

Monaco hosts two major football teams in the principality: The club is historically one of the most successful clubs in the French league, having won Ligue 1 eight times most recently in —17 and competed at the top level for all but six seasons since The club currently plays in the local regional league, deep down in the league system.

The team plays its home matches in the Stade Louis II. Monaco has also competed in the Olympic Games, although, no athlete from Monaco has ever won an Olympic medal.

The Monaco Marathon is the only marathon in the world to pass through three separate countries, those of Monaco, France and Italy, before the finish at the Stade Louis II.

The Monaco Ironman The race includes a 1. Since , the headquarters of the International Association of Athletics Federations , [] the world governing body of athletics , is located in Monaco.

A municipal sports complex, the Rainier III Nautical Stadium in the Port Hercules district consists of a heated saltwater Olympic-size swimming pool , diving boards and a slide.

From 10—12 July Monaco inaugurated the Solar1 Monte Carlo Cup, a series of ocean races exclusively for solar-powered boats. Monaco has an opera house , a symphony orchestra and a classical ballet company.

Monaco has a national museum of contemporary visual art at the New National Museum of Monaco. The country also has numerous works of public art, statues, museums, and memorials see list of public art in Monaco.

Monaco has ten state-operated schools, including: Monaco is so old that it has outlived many of the nations and institutions that it has had relations with.

Monaco made a special agreement with France in in which French customs laws apply in Monaco and its territorial waters. There are two embassies in Monaco: A recurring issue Monaco encounters with other countries is the attempt by foreign nationals to use Monaco to avoid paying taxes in their own country.

There are no border formalities entering or leaving to France. This is located on the far side of the gardens that face the Casino.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city-state. For other uses, see Monaco disambiguation. This section needs to be updated.

See Monaco Organisation territoriale fr. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

Law enforcement in Monaco and Military of Monaco. Land reclamation in Monaco. Catholic Church in Monaco. Rugby union in Monaco. List of museums in Monaco.

Rail transport in Monaco. Foreign relations of Monaco. Geography portal Europe portal Mediterranean portal. Part of the EU Customs territory, administered as part of France.

Administered as a part of France for taxation purposes. Retrieved 29 October The territory of the Principality forms a single commune.

Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 22 May Retrieved 18 July Archived from the original on 15 November Retrieved 15 November Retrieved 7 June Retrieved 3 August United Nations Statistics Division.

Retrieved 8 October Retrieved 28 May The Grimaldi family was not able to permanently secure their holding until when they purchased Monaco, along with two neighbouring villages, Menton and Roquebrune.

The Grimaldis of Monaco: The Birth of a Legend".

In , it was announced that MGM would merge with 20th Century Fox , a plan which never came into fruition. MGM was the last studio to convert to sound pictures, but in spite of this fact, from the end of the silent film era through the late s, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer was the dominant motion picture studio in Hollywood.

Kerkorian did, however, commit to increased production and an expanded film library when he bought United Artists in MGM ramped up internal production, as well as keeping production going at UA, which included the lucrative James Bond film franchise.

In , Ted Turner bought MGM, but a few months later, sold the company back to Kerkorian to recoup massive debt, while keeping the library assets for himself.

The series of deals left MGM even more heavily in debt. In , movie theater magnate Marcus Loew had a problem. However, these purchases created a need for someone to oversee his new Hollywood operations, since longtime assistant Nicholas Schenck was needed in New York headquarters to oversee the theaters.

Approached by Louis B. Mayer , Loew addressed the situation by buying Louis B. Mayer Pictures on April 17, MGM produced more than feature films in its first two years.

Mayer and Thalberg disagreed with the decision. Mayer was active in the California Republican Party and used his political connections to persuade the Justice Department to delay final approval of the deal on antitrust grounds.

During this time, in the summer of , Fox was badly hurt in an automobile accident. Schenck and Mayer had never gotten along Mayer reportedly referred to his boss as "Mr.

Having inherited few big names from their predecessor companies, Mayer and Thalberg began at once to create and publicize a host of new stars, among them Greta Garbo , John Gilbert , William Haines , Joan Crawford , and Norma Shearer who followed Thalberg from Universal.

The arrival of talking pictures in —29 gave opportunities to other new stars, many of whom would carry MGM through the s: MGM was one of the first studios to experiment with filming in Technicolor.

In , MGM released The Viking , the first complete Technicolor feature with sound including a synchronized score and sound effects, but no spoken dialogue.

With the arrival of talkies , MGM moved slowly and reluctantly into sound, releasing features like White Shadows in the South Seas with music and sound effects, and Alias Jimmy Valentine with limited dialogue sequences.

Their first full-fledged talkie, the musical The Broadway Melody in , however, was both a box-office success and won the Academy Award as Best Picture of the Year; and brought MGM into the sound era.

MGM, however, was the very last studio to convert to " talkies " with its first all-color, "all-talking" sound feature with dialogue The Rogue Song , a musical.

From then on, MGM regularly produced several films a year in Technicolor with Northwest Passage being one of the most notable.

From to , MGM produced a series of comedy shorts called All Barkie Dogville Comedies , in which trained dogs were dressed up to parody contemporary films and were voiced by actors.

Columbia also created a label called Publix for Paramount music and sold only at Paramount Theaters. MGM produced approximately 50 pictures a year, though it never met its goal of releasing a new motion picture each and every week It was only able to release one feature film every nine days.

A fine reputation was gained for lavish productions that were sophisticated and polished to cater to an urban audience.

Still, as the Great Depression deepened, MGM began to economize by "recycling" existing sets, costumes, and furnishings from yesteryear projects.

This recycling practice never let up once started. In addition, MGM saved money because it was the only one of the big five studios that did not own an off-site movie ranch.

Until the mids, MGM could make a claim its rivals could not: It was the only Hollywood studio that continued to pay dividends during the s. MGM stars dominated the box office during the s, and the studio was credited for inventing the Hollywood stable of stars system, as well.

Shearer was still a money maker despite screen appearances becoming scarce, and Crawford continued her box-office power until Thalberg, always physically frail, was removed as head of production in Mayer encouraged other staff producers, among them his son-in-law David O.

Selznick, but no one seemed to have the sure touch of Thalberg. As Thalberg fell increasingly ill in , Louis Mayer could now serve as his temporary replacement.

Rumors began circulating that Thalberg was leaving to set up his own independent company; [ citation needed ] his early death in , at age 37, cost MGM dearly.

Within one year, beginning in , Mayer released his five highest-paid actresses from their studio contracts: After a two-year hiatus, Crawford moved to WB, where her career took a dramatic upturn.

Shearer and Garbo never made another film after leaving the lot. Of the five stars, Loy and MacDonald were the only two whom Mayer rehired, in and respectively.

This management-by-committee resulted in MGM losing its momentum, developing few new stars and relying on the safety of sequels and bland material.

Dorothy Parker memorably referred to it as "Metro-Goldwyn-Merde. After , production was cut from 50 pictures a year to a more manageable 25 features per year.

Audiences began drifting to television in the late s. MGM found it difficult to attract them to theaters. Word came from Nicholas Schenck in New York: Mayer thought he had found this savior in Dore Schary , a writer and producer who had found success at running RKO.

One bright spot was MGM musical pictures, under the aegis of producer Arthur Freed, who was operating what amounted to an independent unit within the studio.

Movie audiences more and more were staying home and watching television. In by coincidence, the year Mayer died , the studio lost money for the first time in its year history.

Initially Joseph Vogel became president and Sol Siegel head of production. By , MGM had released all of its contract players, with many either retiring or moving on to television.

Parade was canceled by ABC in the 2nd quarter of TV production was expect to start with the season and was to include half-hour remakes of or series based on its pictures.

Initial feature film sales focused on selling to the networks. In a landmark event, the film became the first American theatrical fiction film to be shown complete in one evening on prime time television over a major American commercial network.

Story of Michelangelo was telecast by ABC in , but that was a documentary. Beginning in , and lasting until , telecasts of The Wizard of Oz became an annual tradition, drawing huge audiences in homes all over the U.

The studio was all too happy to see Oz become, through television, one of the two or three most famous films MGM has ever made, and one of the few films that nearly everybody in the U.

Today The Wizard of Oz is regularly shown on the Turner -owned channels, no longer just once a year. Gigi was a box-office and critical success which won nine Academy Awards , including Best Picture.

In animation, MGM purchased the rights in to distribute a series of cartoons that starred a character named Flip the Frog , produced by Ub Iwerks.

The first cartoon in this series entitled Fiddlesticks was the first sound cartoon to be produced in two-color Technicolor. In , Ub Iwerks cancelled the unsuccessful Flip the Frog series and MGM began to distribute its second series of cartoons, starring a character named Willie Whopper , that was also produced by Ub Iwerks.

The Tom and Jerry cartoons won seven Academy Awards between and In , Tex Avery , another Schlesinger alumnus, joined the animation department.

Avery left the studio in , leaving Hanna and Barbera to focus on the popular Tom and Jerry and Droopy series. In , MGM enjoyed what is quite probably its greatest financial success of later years, with the release of its nearly four-hour Technicolor epic Ben—Hur , a remake of its silent film hit, loosely based on the novel by General Lew Wallace.

Starring Charlton Heston in the title role, the film was critically acclaimed, and won 11 Academy Awards, including Best Picture, a record that held until Titanic matched it in and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King in Tom and Jerry folded in , and the animation department continued with television specials and one feature film, The Phantom Tollbooth.

During this period, MGM fell into a habit that would eventually sink the studio: However, four succeeding big-budget epics — like Ben—Hur , each a remake — failed: The Cinerama film The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm , the first film in Cinerama to actually tell a story, was also a flop.

King of Kings , while a commercial and critical flop at the time, has since come to be regarded as a film classic. The losses caused by these films led to the resignations of Sol Siegel and Joseph Vogel who were replaced by Robert M.

A Space Odyssey In the mids, MGM began to diversify by investing in real estate. As for film-making, that part of the company was quickly and severely downsized under the supervision of James T.

In , it was announced that MGM was in talks with 20th Century Fox about a possible merger, a plan which never came into fruition.

Through the s, studio output slowed considerably as Aubrey preferred four or five medium-budget pictures each year along with a smattering of low-budget fare.

However, MGM never reclaimed its former status. In , Kerkorian declared that MGM was now primarily a hotel company.

In , Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Inc. Kerkorian offered to purchase the remaining outstanding MGM shares he did not own to take the company private but was met with resistance.

Out of the 11 films he put into production, by the time of his release from the studio, only one film, Poltergeist , proved to be a clear hit.

Turner began broadcasting MGM films through his Turner Network Television , and caused a controversy when he began " colorizing " many black-and-white classics.

The well-respected executive, Alan Ladd Jr. A television production division was started up. In , MGM had a hit in Stargate.

Prior to that, MGM had held a home video license for of the films since spring In , MGM changed the way it distributed its products internationally.

It was not unexpected that Time Warner would bid, since the largest shareholder in the company was Ted Turner. In , MGM announced it would return as a theatrical distribution company.

MGM struck deals with The Weinstein Company , Lakeshore Entertainment , Bauer Martinez, and many other independent studios, and then announced its plans to release 14 feature films for and early MGM also hoped to increase the amount to over 20 by MGM also announced plans to restructure its worldwide television distribution operation.

A tentative agreement was signed in Seoul on March 15, , between MGM, South Korea-based entertainment agency Glovit and Busan city official for a theme park schedule to open in Over the next several years, MGM launched a number of initiatives in distribution and the use of new technology and media, as well as joint ventures to promote and sell its products.

The selected site was a 1. Whether MGM could avoid voluntary or involuntary bankruptcy had been a topic of much discussion in the film industry.

On August 17, , chief executive officer Harry E. Cooper as its new CEO, [8] [] [] a corporate executive who guided Enron through its post bankruptcy and oversaw the restructuring and growth of Krispy Kreme in MGM stated in February that the studio would likely be sold in the next four months, and that its latest film, Hot Tub Time Machine , might be one of the last four films to bear the MGM name.

However, some stated that the company might continue as a label for new James Bond productions, as well as other movie properties culled from the MGM library.

Six days later, MGM was finalizing a distribution deal with Sony Pictures Entertainment to handle distribution of its 4, films and DVDs worldwide and on digital platforms, including the two upcoming Bond films: There were four studios who were bidding on the Bond distribution rights: Paramount Pictures , Warner Bros.

Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Columbia Pictures. Paramount was the first studio who dropped out of the Bond bidding. The deal was finalized on April 13, It will expire in June MGM moved forward with several upcoming projects, including remakes of RoboCop and Poltergeist , [] [] and released their first post-bankruptcy film Zookeeper , which was co-distributed by Columbia Pictures on July 8, MGM handles international television distribution rights for the new films as well as its library of existing titles and also retains its in-house production service.

On October 3, , Birnbaum announced his intention to exit his role as an MGM executive and return to "hands-on" producing. He will remain with the studio to produce films on "an exclusive basis".

In the Orion brand was revived as a TV production label for a syndicated court show. Orion Pictures name was extended in fourth quarter for smaller domestic and international video on demand and limited theatrical releases.

In March , MGM announced a multi-year distribution deal with Annapurna Pictures for some international markets and including home entertainment, theatrical and television rights.

The two studios also launched Mirror , a releasing entity for third-party films. However, this partnership will not be exclusive to all MGM films, as several of them will continue to be released through existing studio partners, such as Warner Bros.

It also does not include newly relaunched Orion Pictures , or the James Bond franchise which will now be distributed by Universal.

Since August 22, , its headquarters have been in Beverly Hills, California. MGM planned to house a private theater and a private outdoor patio in the building.

In MGM announced that it was moving its headquarters to a new building in Century City that was to be the first high-rise in Los Angeles to be completed in the 21st century.

Scott Johnson, the architect, designed the bottom third of the tower with extra-large floors so MGM executives could have outdoor decks.

One of three screening rooms placed in the tower was a seat theater on the ground floor later taken over by International Creative Management in December The 14th floor lobby housed the executive suites and a wall of Oscar statuettes for Academy Award -winning films.

Downsizing and relocating to a space that is still prominent but not overly ostentatious and burdened by expenses is fundamental for their survival.

Through its acquisitions of many different companies and film and television libraries, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer has greatly enhanced its film and television holdings.

As of , MGM owned the rights to 5, films. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see MGM disambiguation. The neutrality of this article is disputed.

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Retrieved 8 October Retrieved 28 May The Grimaldi family was not able to permanently secure their holding until when they purchased Monaco, along with two neighbouring villages, Menton and Roquebrune.

The Grimaldis of Monaco: The Birth of a Legend". Retrieved 23 August Archived from the original on 29 June Retrieved 29 June Archived from the original on 16 January Archived from the original on 3 June Archived from the original on 27 May Retrieved 22 March Retrieved 31 August Archived from the original on 4 September Retrieved 8 August Archived from the original on 10 June La Mairie de Monaco.

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